Abstract: This article introduces the concept, attributes, procedures, core ideas and principles of green product design, and combines green product evaluation criteria and evaluation indicators to study the evaluation process of green product design solutions, and proposes a one-time inspection and synthesis. Evaluation of the combined evaluation process, so that the summative evaluation and phase evaluation, diagnostic evaluation and dynamic optimization process organically combined to achieve the optimal design.
Keywords: green product design program evaluation index evaluation process Since the 1990s, the global industrial restructuring has shown a trend of green strategy. This green strategy is embodied in the conservation of resources, the effective use of energy and the protection of the environment, and puts forward the concepts and methods of green product design. Green product design has become a research hotspot and main content of modern design technology. According to studies, 70%-80% of product performance is determined by the design phase, and the cost of the design itself is only 10% of the total cost of the product. If environmental considerations are taken into account, the proportion will increase, because the design will cause environmental impact. The degree of damage is far greater than the impact on the ecological environment caused by the design process itself. Therefore, designing and designing products according to the characteristics of green products at the initial stage of design, ie, green design, and effective evaluation of the design of green products can ensure the final â€œgreenâ€ characteristics of products.
In this paper, a multi-level closed-loop hierarchical evaluation system is applied in the design evaluation process, and a set of environmental indicators and qualification criteria are set on the evaluation process to form a one-time inspection and step-by-step hierarchy in the evaluation process (each phase, each The indicator layer) evaluation mechanism, the use of this mechanism is a new idea in the evaluation process of manufacturing green product design.
Green product attributes and their design overview
Green product attributes
Green products are those that can meet user requirements and can be economically realized in their life cycle (raw material preparation, product planning, design, manufacturing, packaging and shipping, installation and maintenance, use, scrap recycling and reuse) Products that save resources and energy, minimise or eliminate environmental pollution, and have good protection for workers (producers and users).
The attributes of green products consist of basic attributes, environmental attributes, resource attributes, energy attributes, economic attributes, and social attributes of the product.
Basic attributes: It refers to the most basic performance parameters of a product determined according to the market and user needs, and mainly includes the product's functional indicators and quality indicators.
Environmental attributes: It is one of the main features of green products that differ from general products. The environmental attribute indicators include water environment indicators, atmospheric environmental indicators, soil pollution indicators, noise indicators, and solid waste indicators. Different products have different environmental attribute indicators.
Resource Attributes: The resources mentioned here are generalized resources, including material resources, equipment resources, information resources, and human resources. They are the most basic conditions for the production of green products. The material resource index is expressed by the product's material utilization rate, material type, etc. It reflects the effective utilization of material flow in product production; the equipment resource index includes equipment resource utilization, equipment resource optimization, etc. It is a measure of the rationality of green product production organization. The important aspects of sex; human resources indicators and information resources indicators reflect the company's personnel quality and sense of responsibility to society and users.
Energy attributes: Saving and making full use of energy are another major feature of green products. The reduction in energy use has saved resources and reduced environmental pollution from another side. The main indicators related to green products and energy are as follows: energy types used in product production and use; energy consumption in product production; energy consumption in product transportation, use, and recycling; and the proportion of renewable energy and green energy used in the product life cycle .
Economic attributes: The economics of manufacturing green products are product-oriented throughout the life cycle, and therefore have a distinct difference from traditional economic (cost) evaluations. The evaluation model also reflects all the characteristics of the life cycle. The cost of green products consists of production costs, user costs, and social costs. Traditional production costs include product material costs, tool and equipment costs, labor costs, and management costs. User costs refer to the costs incurred by users in the use phase, including energy costs and maintenance costs used by users; social costs. Refers to the social burden of the cost of this product, such as product disposal costs, environmental governance costs.
Social property: refers to the fact that green products must meet the needs of social development in addition to satisfying the requirements of the above indicators. Because many products are related to culture, ethics, human relations, social stability and social progress, social attributes should also be an important factor that cannot be ignored in the evaluation of green products.
Green Design Overview
Green Design, also known as â€œeco-design,â€ is a design process that takes environmental resources as a core concept, and refers to the full consideration of the impact on resources and the environment in the design of the product and its entire life cycle. While optimizing the function, quality, development cycle and cost of the product, all relevant design factors are optimized, and environmental design goals such as detachability, recyclability, maintainability, and reusability are achieved, so that the product and its manufacturing process are environmentally friendly. The overall impact is minimized and the efficiency of resource utilization is highest.
The content of the green design includes a wide range of content, including green design modeling; material selection and management for green design; design for resource optimization and utilization; energy-saving design; product detachability design; product recyclability design Green product cost analysis; green design database; product green packaging design. Different industries, different products, green design content and focus is not the same.
The green design process The green design process is similar to the traditional design process, including requirements analysis, concept design, preliminary program review, detailed design, design review, and program improvement. Only more specific content, such as the evaluation of the design plan requires the use of life cycle assessment methods for environmental evaluation.
The core ideas of green design There are three main ideas of green design: the idea of â€‹â€‹the whole life cycle, the idea of â€‹â€‹concurrent engineering, and the idea of â€‹â€‹information integration.
Product life cycle thinking: Green product design focuses on the entire product life cycle process, not just a certain stage, a certain link or a certain department, requires designers to form the product from product concept to product life cycle of the entire product, are We must consider the coordination of the environment, technology and economy.
The idea of â€‹â€‹concurrent engineering: Product developers are required to consider the factors at each stage of the product's lifecycle from the very beginning of design. Concurrent engineering emphasizes the collaborative work of various departments of enterprises and establishes an effective information exchange and communication mechanism among decision makers. The problems that may arise in the subsequent steps are discovered in the early stages of product design and can be resolved. The purpose is to make the product have good manufacturability, assembly, maintainability, recyclability, etc. at the design stage, minimize design iterations, and shorten design, production preparation, and manufacturing time.
The idea of â€‹â€‹information integration: In the entire life cycle of a product, a large amount of information and data will be generated. This information can be divided into three major categories: technical data, economic data, and environmental data. To design truly green products that are technologically advanced, economically reasonable, and environmentally friendly, we must integrate this information.
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