According to the object of action, it can be divided into antitoxin, antibacterial antibody, antiviral antibody and cytophilic antibody (immunoglobulin that can bind to the cell, such as lgE-reactive antibody in type 1 allergy, can be adsorbed on the target cell membrane).
According to physical and chemical properties and biological functions
According to physical and chemical properties and biological functions, it can be divided into five categories: IgM, IgG, IgA, IgE and IgD.
IgM antibodies are the first secreted antibodies in the immune response. After binding to the antigen, they initiate the cascade of complement. They also connect intruders to each other to form a pile for macrophages to swallow;
IgG antibodies activate complement and neutralize multiple toxins. IgG lasts a long time and is the only antibody that can protect the fetus by crossing the placenta during pregnancy. They also secrete into the colostrum from the breast to protect the newborn;
IgA antibodies enter the mucosal surface of the body, including the mucous membranes of respiration, digestion, reproduction, etc., to neutralize infectious agents. It can also be delivered to the neonatal digestive tract mucosa through the colostrum of breast milk, which is the most important type of antibody in breast milk;
The tail of the IgE antibody binds to the cell membrane of basophils and mast cells. When the antibody binds to the antigen, basophils and mast cells release histamine-like substances to promote the development of inflammation. This is also the antibody that triggers the immediate allergic reaction;
The role of IgD antibodies is not yet clear. They mainly appear on the surface of mature B lymphocytes, which may be related to the differentiation of B cells. (IgD was discovered from human myeloma protein in 1995, and its molecular weight is 175kD, which is mainly produced by plasma cells from tonsils and spleen. The concentration of IgD in human serum is 3 ï½ž 40Î¼g / ml, which is less than 1% of the total serum Ig. It is synthesized late in the individual's development. The IgD hinge region is very long and sensitive to protease hydrolysis, so the IgD half-life is very short, only 2.8 days. The exact immune function of IgD in serum is not yet known. During the differentiation of B cells to mature B cells, In addition to expressing SmIgD, it shows immune tolerance after antigen stimulation. After the activation of mature B cells or after activation or becoming memory B cells, SmIgD gradually disappears.)
Response by visible
According to whether there is a visible reaction after binding to the antigen, it can be divided into: complete antibodies with visible binding reaction with the participation of the medium, that is, commonly known as antibodies, and no visible reaction, but can inhibit the antigen and its corresponding complete Incomplete antibody bound by antibody.
By antibody source
According to the source of antibodies, they can be divided into natural antibodies and immune antibodies.
Antibodies are immunoglobulins, modified globulin molecules. It is stimulated by specific antigens. The production of antibodies is caused by the interaction of various immune cells after the antigen invades the body, so that the B cells in the lymphocytes differentiate and proliferate to form plasma cells, which can produce secreted antibodies.
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